The two palaces are now a mainstay tourist destination in Solo and Jogja. But actually, the Surakarta Sunanate and the Ngayogyakarta Sultanate were once a kingdom called Mataram.
The kingdom that was once part of the Pajang Sultanate began in 1588 AD with the first king, Danang Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senopati. The first palace was in the Kotagede area, Yogyakarta Special Region. However, now the remains of the Islamic Mataram Palace that once existed were not like the Yogyakarta and Surakarta Palace.
The Kotagede Palace is almost without trace. Now the Kotagede Palace has even become a residential area because the center of the kingdom has undergone several transfers. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma, the royal center was moved to the Kerto area. The Kotagede Palace was not abandoned when the royal center was moved to Kerto because it was the residence of the queen mother. This palace is estimated to start abandoned after the reign of Sultan Agung was over.
Mataram Islam began to decline after Sultan Agung died. By his successor, Amangkurat I, the center of the kingdom was again moved from Kerto to Pleret. Relics of Islamic Mataram in Kotagede Although now a residential area, the remains of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom can still be found in Kotagede, namely:
1. Semar Buttocks (Kotagede Cepuri Fortress) The form of this site is a wall that is no longer intact. The shape of this wall is curved so that the community is likened to a buttocks. This wall was once a unit of the Cepuri Fort of Kotagede Palace.
In the past there were two layers of fortifications that surrounded a palace. The inside is called Cepuri Fort, while the outside is called Baluwarti Fort. Now there are only a few parts of the wall left. The Semar Butt Site has become a cultural preserve and has been repaired so that it doesn't get destroyed. The aim is as a reminder of the early days of Islamic Mataram.
2. Batu Gilang, Batu Gatheng, and Batu Gentong The three relics are now in a building in the middle of the road. To be able to enter the building, need permission and assistance from the key interpreter.
According to the caretaker, Batu Gilang was a throne of Panembahan Senopati. There is a kind of indentation on one side of the Gilang Stone. It is said that it was the former head of Ki Ageng Mangir's bang by Panembahan Senopati because it was considered defiant.
Meanwhile near the door of the building, there is a large stone ball which is Gatheng Stone. Formerly this stone was a toy of the son of Panembahan Senopati, Raden Rangga. Meanwhile there is also a barrel shaped stone called Batu Gentong. This stone was used as a place to hold ablution water for two advisors of Panembahan Senopati, namely Ki Ageng Giring and Ki Juru Mertani.
Broken Wall of Cepuri Fortress
The remains of Cepuri Fort, Kotagede Palace, besides the Semar Butt Site can still be found. This time there is a drop in the part of the wall.
It is said that formerly Raden Rangga was knocked down by his father, Panembahan Senopati to break down the fortress wall. That was done by Panembahan Seopati as learning for the arrogant Raden Rangga.
Mataram Gedhe Mosque
This mosque was founded in 1587 by order of Danang Sutawijaya as part of the concept of the city of Catur Gatra Tunggal. The concept includes the buildings of the Palace, Square, Mosque and Market.
According to the concept of Chess Gatra Tunggal, the palace functions as the center of government and the market as an economic center. While the mosque functions as a religious center and the square is a meeting place for the king and his people.
Next to the Mataram Gedhe Mosque, there is a cemetery. Here resides in Panembahan Senopati and his father, Ki Ageng Hatiahan, and the Second King of Mataram Islam, Panembahan Hanyakrawati.
In addition, there is also the tomb of Raja Pajang, Sultan Hadiwijaya or Jaka Tingkir and Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana II who were not buried in the Imogiri King Cemetery. This tomb is opened for pilgrims on Monday, Thursday and Sunday at 10:00 - 13:00 WIB. While for Friday, this tomb is open at 13.00 - 16.00 WIB.
Those who want to make a pilgrimage must wear traditional clothes and may not take photos inside the tomb complex.
Sendang Seliran is a bath located south of the Mataram Gedhe Mosque. The location is also adjacent to the Kotagede Tomb. This bath was once built by Ki Ageng Harvestahan and Panembahan Senopati.
Sendang Seliran consists of two parts, namely Sendang Putri for women and Sendang Kakung for men. Now Sendang Seliran is no longer functioned as a bath, but it is believed that the water can make the face youthful.
These are the six relics of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom in Kotagede. Islamic Mataram did experience several displacements after the Pleret, until finally it was divided into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. During the Amangkurat II period, the royal center was moved to Kartasura, which is now in Sukoharjo, Central Java, after the Trunojoyo rebellion.
The Kingdom moved again during Pakubuwana II because of Raden Mas Garendi's rebellion. The last transfer was to the place where now the Surakarta Hadiningrat Palace is located, Solo City. Furthermore, Mataram split into Surakarta and Yogyakarta through the Giyanti agreement signed on February 13, 1755.